Pettinain

   PETTINAIN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing 416 inhabitants, of whom 80 are in the village, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Lanark. The name of this parish is supposed to have been derived from the old British word Peithynan, signifying "a clear space of flat ground," in reference to a level tract stretching along the north of the village. It is stated in ancient records that the district was originally covered with wood, and that David I. gave to "Nicolas his clerk," a carucate of land in the forest here, with the right of common-pasture. This portion is thought to have been cleared of the wood after being thus assigned, and to have in consequence fixed the name of the place. No events of any consequence are recorded in connexion with Pettinain; but in the southern vicinity of the parish are the remains of a very extensive and well-fortified camp, adjacent to which are a large number of out-works, where many urns and other relics of antiquity have been found; and although no traces exist to identify this camp with any particular people, it evidently indicates the spot to have been the scene of some important military operations. The lands of Westraw, in the parish, were awarded to Sir Adam Johnston in the time of James II., King of Scotland, for his vigorous efforts in suppressing the rebellion of the Earl of Douglas. These were afterwards alienated, and came into the possession of the Earl of Hyndford, at whose death they passed, for want of male issue, into the family of Anstruther, an ancient branch of which had married a sister of the earl.
   The parish is about three miles long and two and a half broad, and contains 3060 acres. It is bounded on the north by Carstairs and Carnwath parishes, on the south by Covington, on the east by Libberton, on the west by Carmichael, and on the north-west by a small part of Lanark. The figure of the parish, which stretches along the banks of the Clyde, is very irregular. The climate is damp and variable: in the spring the pastures and blossoms suffer severely from the east winds; while the plantations of young wood generally take an inclination north-eastward from the action of violent, and sometimes long-continued, south-west winds. A ridge runs from Covington, in a north-western direction, until it terminates in the western extremity of Pettinain, where it rises 500 feet above the bed of the river; the highest peak is Cairn-gryffe, and the other parts are called Westraw and Swaites hills, from the names of the respective places to which they are opposite. Pheasants and hares are seen in great numbers in almost every direction. The Clyde, rising twenty-five miles southward, in Crawford parish, flows with great impetuosity till it arrives within a few miles of this parish, when it assumes a totally different character; becomes deep and smooth; and, slowly approaching by numerous meanderings, quietly enters at its south-east boundary. Afterwards changing its course by a flexure from east to west, it runs along the northern limit of the parish, and, within about half a mile of its departure, rushes with considerable force over a bed of rocks. It is well stocked with trout, perch, and pike, the last of which make great depredations on the two first, and attain in some cases to the length of three feet, and the weight of upwards of twenty pounds.
   The soil varies considerably, being in the vicinity of the river a mixture of soft clayey mould, running to a depth of several feet, and resting upon a gravelly subsoil; while in the neighbourhood of the village, as well as in several other parts, it is a rich loam; and in other places, again, is mixed with large quantities of gravel and sand. The haugh or holm land immediately close to the river is very fertile, and frequently inundated by the rising floods. On the high parts, which are covered with heath and bent, the soil is a poor and thin earth with a clayey or tilly subsoil. The number of acres under tillage is nearly 2320; and about 580 are waste or in pasture. The crops include potatoes, turnips, and hay; and about 580 acres are appropriated to the growth of oats and barley, the chief grain here cultivated, the high elevation of the land above the sea rendering it unfavourable to wheat. The manures used are chiefly those obtained from the farm, many cattle being kept, especially on the dairy-farms; and in very few instances is bone-dust employed. The character of the husbandry is in general good; and great care is taken in preparing the ground by ploughing and harrowing, and in the proper application of the manure; the result of which is unusually heavy crops, especially of turnips, which are grown in large quantities. Ayrshire cattle are preferred on the dairy-farms, which are very numerous, and managed in the best possible manner. Within the last twenty-five years, covered drains to the length of almost twelve miles, and from five to seven and a half feet deep, have been constructed. In addition to these, there are nearly 5000 yards of open drains; and surface drains to a great extent have been formed, in order to prepare the ground for plantations, ninety-two acres of which on hilly and waste land have been made within the last twenty years by one proprietor, besides others in different parts of the parish; amounting in the whole to about 160 acres. The farm-buildings are an exception to the general improvements that have taken place, being inferior in many respects to those of neighbouring districts; but in most cases the inclosures and stone fences are excellent, and the latter have been recently augmented by an addition of 4840 yards. The land is the property of three families, one of whom, of Carmichael House and Westraw, holds almost the whole. The rocks in the parish are mainly felspar-porphyry and sandstone, the former of which supplies an excellent material for the construction and repair of roads: limestone is wrought in two places, but only on a small scale, and used for burning into lime. The rateable annual value of Pettinain is £3235.
   The chief mansion-house is that on the estate of Westraw, which has been at various times enlarged and improved, and is now a good and commodious building, belonging to Sir Windham Carmichael Anstruther, Bart., the representative of the ancient family of Carmichael. It has plantations of almost all the trees common to the county, and is encompassed with extensive grounds in the highest state of cultivation. With the exception of a few persons employed in hand-loom weaving, the population is entirely agricultural. About one-fifth reside in the village of Pettinain; the rest are scattered throughout the parish, and their intercourse is principally with the town of Lanark, to which they have easy access by a bridge over the Clyde at Hyndford. The town of Carnwath, only three miles distant, was formerly the chief place of resort; but the obstruction often raised by the swelling of the Clyde turned the traffic to Lanark. Since this change occurred, however, a large float has been placed at the Carnwath ferrystation, which is impelled by machinery, and safely conveys passengers and carriages at a small toll levied to defray the expense, £500. The turnpike-road leading from Carlisle to Stirling passes along the western boundary of the parish, and, as well as the parish roads, is kept in very good repair. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; and the patronage belongs to Sir W. C. Anstruther. The stipend of the minister is £162, of which £47. 6. are received from the exchequer, with a comfortable manse built in 1820, and a glebe of ten acres, valued at from £25 to £30 per annum. The old manse, still a good and substantial, but small house, serves as offices to the present residence. The church, which is a very plain building, is conveniently situated, is in good repair, and seats about 234 persons: the belfry, supposed to have belonged to an older church, bears the date of 1696 and the inscription, "Holiness becomes God's House." There is a parochial school, in which Latin and all the ordinary branches of education are taught; the master's salary is £32, with the interest of 500 merks left in 1708 by the Earl of Hyndford, and fees amounting to about £17, as well as a house and garden. The only relic of antiquity of note is the camp already mentioned, situated on a lofty moor; it covers about six acres, and is nearly of circular form. Its walls appear to have been very lofty and massive, and composed of large uncemented stones; and adjoining is a deep moss, in which is a fort, formerly connected with the camp. In the parish are also a number of tumuli.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

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